Stone was the first material that ancient man fashioned into tools, but was later relegated to use as a building material. In the last century, the oxides that comprise rocks and minerals have been recognized to possess the widest range of fundamental properties of any class of materials. Oxides made both the solid-state transistor and flat-panel displays possible. Despite these achievements, the true potential of oxides to revolutionize modern life has only begun to be tapped. I will illustrate how we are designing new oxides to advance microelectronics and catalysis as we prepare to usher in the New Stone Age.